(2012) mentioned that, on average, Bangladesh losses 0.2 Mmt of rice every year due to salinity intrusion in coastal areas. First, it narrates the implications of unfavorable salinity scenarios in the study area and the adverse consequences in rice production following Cyclone Aila (2009). Pollution in the Bay of Cartagena can be attributed to domestic sewage discharges; industrial dumping; leachate landfills; and sediments from the Canal del Dique. Considering the above, this chapter presents the results of an empirical study conducted over the salinity-impacted coastal plains of the lower Gangetic delta in India (aka Indian Sundarban delta) involving local farmers who suffered severe livelihood discontinuation from Cyclone Aila in 2009. Reactive processes can include port contingency planning, dredge material management plans, and risk management plans that identify areas of seagrass to be protected in the event of a cargo spill or ship grounding. According to a 2006 environmental profile of Guatemala, the country lost 11% of its forest areain the last 10 years, resulting in increased sedimentation rates in the bay area. Pesticide pollution - from DDTs - fluctuated in correlation with their use in farming activities, decreasing from the 1980s onwards as use of these pesticides were gradually discouraged. Environmental studies at Kingston Harbour highlight two major problem areas: severe eutrophication (increased presence of chemical nutrients in the water) and continuing deterioration of the water quality from untreated industrial wastewater, disposal of agrochemicals and sewage, andan increased sedimentation rate in Hunts Bay caused by the Portmore Causeway, a bridge connecting Ports more to Kingston. Armoring of the shoreline with seawalls and docks increases the reflection of wave energy and increases erosion rates. Sustainability as part of coastal development is achieved at the intersection of the ecological, economic, and social spheres represented by the three components of sustainable development. No Yes No Yes Yes Yes 1997). Menu. The history of coastal development in the Asian megadeltas predominantly narrates the reclamation of marshy swamps into agricultural establishments, thereby expanding human settlements toward the coast. At Punta Mona, we have recorded coral damage due to anchoring by tourism related boats. If you would like to learn more about the IAEA’s work, sign up for our weekly updates containing our most important news, multimedia and more. These activities, coupled with rapid population growth, constitute the main sources of pollution in the bay area. and Green Infrastructure, to ensure the sustainable development of EU coastal areas. The Blue Economy is sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods and jobs, while preserving the health of marine and coastal ecosystem. (13.1%) and A. palmata (0.6%). Sustainable Development. are coastal, and some are also important ports; as much as 80% of industrial activities and 90% of tourism and recreation, almost all fishing and aquaculture, 35% of cultivated fields, and a significant percentage of infrastructure (including ports, airports, and roads) is concentrated on the coasts. The government approved and adopted the CDS in 2006. Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (INVEMAR), Colombia (Institute of Marine and Coastal Research), Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), Costa Rica (University of Costa Rica), Instituto Costarricense de Acueductos y Alcantarillados, Costa Rica (Costa Rica Institute of Aqueducts and Sewage Systems), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, Cuba (Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment)/li>, Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo, Republica Dominicana (Autonomous University of Santo Domingo), Ministerio de Energia y Minas (MEM), Guatemala (Ministry of Energy and Mines), Empresa Portuaria Quetzal, Guatemala Quetzal Port Enterprise), Ministere de l'environnement, Haiti Ministry of the environment), Secretaria de Recursos Naturales y Ambiente (SERNA), Honduras (Secretary of Natural Resources and Environment), National Environment and Planning Agency, Jamaica, niversidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (National Autonomous University of Mexico), niversidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua, Nicaragua (National Autonomous University of Nicaragua), Autoridad de Recursos Acuáticos de Panamá, Panamá (Authority for Aquatic Resources of Panama), Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Spain (Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology Research), Universidad del Oriente, Venezuela (University of the Orient). … data). Even though the constructions sector has been greatly and negatively affected by the financial crisis it is interesting that still 90% of new constructions (89% of built area) are located in the islands and in coastal areas (WWF Greece, 2015). We work with Pacific Island countries to strengthen their legal and institutional frameworks for sustainable development and address gaps in environmental legislation. Since the realization of climate change adversity and its predicted impacts, adaptation has occupied the central theme of agricultural sustainability because of the greater susceptibility and contribution to domestic production in the developing countries (Smit and Skinner 2002; Bradshaw et al., 2004). Also included are things like beach renourishment, seawall construction, and nearshore dredging and oil platform construction. Empirical studies have already indicated that each unit (dS/mL) rise of salinity roughly corresponds to a 12% reduction in rice yields, along with structural damage resulting in poor market values (Hanson et al., 1999; Redfern et al., 2012). At the same time, high levels of metals were found in some sediments. M. areolata colonies in other areas not utilized by the visitors had significantly lower incidences of damage. Urban sprawl is expressed through the expansion of urban centers, cities, and vacation destinations along the coastline and is also intensive in small islands that are main tourism destinations. A major economic activity in Almirante Bay in the province of Bocas del Toro, Panama, is the processing of bananas for export. Coastal development impacts may be direct (e.g., land filling, dredging, coral and sand mining for construction) or indirect (e.g., increased runoff of sediment and pollutants). In contemporary debate, sustainability often serves as a synonym for sustainable development. Telephone: +43 (1) 2600-0, Facsimile +43 (1) 2600-7, © 1998–2020 IAEA, All rights reserved. Information and data gathered so far on the evolution and state of pollution in the bay is expected to serve as baseline for evaluating policies and coastal management programmes to be established. Growing human population and coastal development are threatening seagrass beds. Increased oil pollution is also evident in the river estuary. For example: The Bay of Cartagena is one of Colombia's major waterways. (2015) provides economic evidence for mangrove conservation and demonstrates a policy tool (CCD) that can be used to convince stakeholders and policy-makers to implement actions for mangrove conservation and restoration (Fig. 28.11). The session aimed to assess results of a regional project using nuclear techniques to measure the paths of coastal pollution in the participating Caribbean countries. An increase in the number of boats that take snorklers and swimmers to the reef at Cahuita has increased the impact on two particular patch reefs favored by tour operators (shallow waters and good coral condition). As for example, Abedin et al. It builds on existing national sectoral strategies and plans and on the document on National Strategy for Accelerated Poverty Reduction. Dating measurements using lead-210 showed that an increased rate in sedimentation and associated pollutants began to appear with the rapid urban growth and industrial expansion between 1970 and 1990. Amatique Bay is a semi-enclosed body of water along the eastern coast of Guatemala hosting a complex ecosystem of coastal lagoons, swamps, marshes, river systems and channels that connect protected waters and the adjacent continental shelf. In the absence of proactive institutional leadership and because of the lack of national focus and funding, development partners have also changed their priorities. Across the Caribbean, pollution by heavy metals, including mercury, is causing increasing concern about its effects on tourism, clean beaches, and fishing. (2015) developed a new policy concept of Climate Compatible Development (CCD) to predict the economic consequences of plausible alternative future scenarios for Kenya's mangrove forests. With rapid urbanization in the coastal zone and increasing habitat losses, it is imperative to understand how urban development affects coastal biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. There is evidence of damage by reef-walkers on the small population of Manicina areolata at Cahuita. The sustainability of coastal areas largely depends on effective and timely planning at the local level. Leticia , in, The Coastal Marine Ecosystem of South Florida, United States, Kaiser, Collie, Hall, Jennings, & Poiner, 2002, Fourqurean, Boyer, Durako, Hefty, & Peterson, 2003, Nomiki Simboura, ... Panayotis Panayotidis, in, Urbanization and the development of tourism explain the importance of, Conservation of Blue Carbon Ecosystems for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation, Mangrove forests in Kenya are being degraded for timber, fuelwood, and, Past, present and future of the coral reefs of the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, Tourist visitation to the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, as well as, Protecting seagrass – approaches and methods. Sedimentation rates show an increase from 1890 to 1980 with peaks attributed to severe weather events that have hit the area. In fact, the United States is a global leader in responsibly managed fisheries and sustainable seafood. Finally, it further narrates the results of a pilot study to identify farmers' willingness and intention to embrace specific adaptive/coping actions. The rate of sedimentation has tripled in Puerto Cortes in the last 50 years, and is expected to double its current rate in the next 20 years if left unchecked. The impact on the Manicina population was exacerbated by boaters who pulled their boats in these shallow waters increasing the damage by crushing the reef (Jiménez and Cortés unpubl. Sustainable development. The adverse impact of salinity is further hypothesized by a number of researchers as a determining factor behind the remarkable outward migration of agricultural workers from the Asian megadeltas (Basu and Shaw, 2013; Dasgupta et al., 2014; Basu et al., 2015). Waste water from industrial processes and expanding human settlements have dramatically altered the environmental profile of this important river basin. But for the marine scientists gathered in Monaco in Spring 2011, the last five years yielded a treasure trove of data on the study and understanding of coastal pollution in the Caribbean. The Blue Economy encompasses many activities that impact all of us. The industrial corridor built along its banks is home to about 65 petrochemical plants including the Lazaro Cardenas refinery, the oldest in the country. The nature of data determines not only coastal definition types but also the ... indicators system. There are similarities across the region and common pollution trends. Second, the chapter narrates the findings from an empirical study conducted to identify the potential adaptive and coping options against the rising salinity scenario. This major industry thus accounts for the bay's increased pollution by organic chemicals and hydrocarbons. This is a premise of the sustainable development ideal. The environmental impacts of development impacts directly affect communities' ability to balance natural resource protection with sustainable community growth. Each of these country reports stress that data on the trends in heavy metal and organic pollution gathered for the last 100 years will be a useful tool for decision makers in crafting strategies for sustainable coastal management. Huge volumes of agricultural pollutants and industrial and municipal waste make their way into Rio Haina from industrial areas in the basin and from the city of Santo Domingo. Sustainable Development Goal 14 (Goal 14 or SDG 14) is about "Life below water" and is one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations in 2015. The projection of recent mangrove loss trends over the next 20 years suggests a 43% loss of total forest extent over that time, whereas the restoration of the mangrove extent loss between 1992 and 2012 is still plausible. A growing fleet of recreational vessels increases physical impacts on seagrass beds and seagrass scars caused by groundings, anchors, and propellers are commonly found on shallow beds (Sargent et al., 1995). Terms of Use, Rodolfo Quevenco, IAEA Division of Public Information, Governmental, legal and regulatory framework, Security of nuclear and other radioactive material, Radioactive waste and spent fuel management, Zoonotic Disease Integrated Action (ZODIAC), Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT), IAEA Water Availability Enhancement Project (IWAVE), International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), Catalogue of review missions and advisory services, Peer review and advisory services calendar, Global Nuclear Safety and Security Network (GNSSN), International Nuclear Information System (INIS), Advanced Reactors Information System (ARIS), Integrated Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (iNFCIS), Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Information System (SRIS), Offices Reporting to the Director General, Tracing Pollution of the Past, 21 September 2011, Why Water Matters, IAEA Bulletin (Vol. 4.1 Sustainable development in the context of flood and coastal erosion risk management requires an approach which delivers four outcomes: i) Maximises the … Similarly environmental impact statements (EIS), environmental impact assessments, reviews of environmental factors, initial advice statements, and a variety of other report formats are designed to identify and to possibly minimise (by redesign, response, or by reducing future risk) the effect of a development or structure on the coastal environment including seagrasses. Millepora accounted for 52.7% of the fragments, followed by Agaricia spp. U.S. fisheries are big business, providing jobs and recreation and keeping our coastal communities vibrant. The only coasts that show sand accumulation are those in which there are large rivers with an abundant sediment load. • Aims at reducing environmental impacts of tourism and providing alternative livelihood to coastal communities through introducing policy changes and strengthening public-private partnerships. Joined by experts from the IAEA, Spain and its Environment Laboratory in Monaco, they met in a special session on the Caribbean during the International Symposium on Isotopes, Marine Ecosystems and Climate Change. It is anticipated that more shorelines will be replaced by seawalls to adapt to sea-level rise and to reduce coastal erosion. Robert Coles, Miguel Fortes, in Global Seagrass Research Methods, 2001. As nutrient availability increases, macroalgae can replace seagrasses because of light competition. However, following the overall pattern of urban and tourism development, this is more pronounced in the Aegean and the coasts of eastern Greece as many regions, especially in western Greece, still have a population density below the national. A consequence of this event was the replacement of dense Thalassia beds by thick mats of the green alga. A-1400 Vienna, Austria The Coatzacoalcos River is the third largest river in Mexico. Bananas have been grown in the area for over 100 years; it is an agricultural activity noted for its high dependence on agricultural chemicals and fertilizers and for increased cargo ship traffic to the local seaports. Central America's largest port - a hub for cargo vessels and luxury cruise ships - is also located along the bay. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Nomiki Simboura, ... Panayotis Panayotidis, in World Seas: an Environmental Evaluation (Second Edition), 2019. Data collected have made it possible to understand the evolution and current state of pollution, and demonstrate the impact of rehabilitation programs to restore the environmental quality of the ecosystem. Its impact has been catastrophic for the bay's ecosystems, leading to the existing coral reefs' destruction, as well as of all sea grass. CNMI Sustainability Guide for Hospitality Industry – 2018 View this publication. The factors that influence development along the Mexican coast need to be better understood to ensure minimal harm to the environment (State of Nova Scotia, 2016). Species composition of seagrass beds in Florida is highly influenced by salinity, with increases in the amount and variability in runoff leading to a change from T. testudinum-dominated seagrass beds to ones dominated by H. wrightii (Fourqurean, Boyer, Durako, Hefty, & Peterson, 2003; Lirman et al., 2014). Reactive processes generally occur in response to a perceived operational threat such as a coastal development proposal. It also has one of the largest ports in the Caribbean and a manufacturing base for hundreds of small and medium factories. Urgent measures may also have to be taken along the upper basins of the rivers Ulua and Chameleon to control soil erosion. Another source of contamination emanates from the settlements along the Bay of Almirante. Equipment and training were provided under the project to strengthen the analytical capabilities of participating countries' scientific institutions. Source: Report of the Secretary-General, "Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals", E/2017/66. This represents a potential danger to public health from the consumption of marine organisms. Increased traces of heavy metal pollution have also been detected, but this has been attributed more to increased sedimentation rather than the level of industrial activity. Efforts are invested in ensuring the canal's navigability, but not the sustainability of the ecosystem. However, eutrophication in aquatic environments can shift the competitive balance from seagrasses (dominant primary producers in low-nutrient conditions) to faster-growing primary producers. Yet, despite extensive research on agricultural adaptation options against climate variables such as temperature and rainfall (e.g., Deressa et al., 2009), the understanding of adaptive responses against unfavorable salinity scenarios is incomplete at the present (Connor et al., 2012). The number of visitors to Cahuita National Park increased dramatically between 1982 and 1991 (latest data available) (Bermúdez 1992). Seagrasses have a very high light requirement, needing > 10% of incident sunlight to thrive (Duarte, 1991). An average of 1.48 kicks to corals per person with fins was significantly higher than 0.31 kicks without fins (Gove and Cortés unpubl. It is the site for thousands of industrial and commercial enterprises, as well as home for nearly one million people. There is a need for development alternatives that reduce ecosystem degradation. In 1994 and 1995, tourist were also observed collecting corals and reef organisms, increasing the destruction of the area. The reduction in freshwater flow and changes in hydrology have been linked to the mass mortality of seagrasses in Florida Bay in 1987–91 and, more recently, in 2015–16 (Hall et al., 2016). data). However, the water quality has badly degraded, and the surrounding area has deteriorated, thus reducing its environmental use and touristic attractiveness. Until then, follow-up training on the use of lead-210 for dating sediments and a review meeting for all counterparts are still foreseen. Coastal and marine tourism alone accounts for 2% of Guatemala's gross domestic product; tourist visits have steadily increased through the years. These factors, combined with the bay's topography that inhibits the water's active exchange with the open sea, and the deforestation of the mangrove forest, have resulted in increased levels of environmental degradation of the marina in the Bay of Almirante. Mercury pollution is also evident in Cartagena Bay, according to the analysis presented, with high concentrations detected in the deeper sediment layers. Dictionary Thesaurus Examples Sentences Quotes Reference Spanish ... Sustainable-development meaning. 11. The scientists represented countries sharing the coastal resources of the Caribbean Sea - Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela. Available ) ( Bermúdez 1992 ) to make these reports available - in full concise! Negatively affect other marine sectors such as Athens, Piraeus, Thessaloniki, Heraklion, Patras, Volos,,! 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